A co-production with The Nuffield, Southampton, the production premieres at the Nuffield from 11 to 20 April 2013, before visiting Watford, Glasgow, Newcastle, Oxford, Richmond, Bath and Derby.
John Donnelly's "searing new version" of Chekhov's play imagines "a world on stage, riven with hopeless love and dreams of success".
The full cast is David Beames (Dorn), Pearl Chanda (Nina), Alexander Cobb (Konstantin), Abigail Cruttenden (Arkadina), Catherine Cusack (Polina), Rudi Dharmalingam (Medvedenko), Eddie Eyre (Yakov), John Elkington (Shamrayev), Colin Haigh (Sorin), Jenny Rainsford (Masha) and Gyuri Sarossy (Trigorin).
Translated from Jacobean London to the Soho of the 1950s, the production will star Richard Goulding Dick Follywit), John Hopkins (Penitent Brothel), Ian Redford (Sir Bounteous Progress), Steffan Rhodri (Mr Littledick) and Sarah Ridgeway (Truly Kidman).
Foley, whose recent credits include the Whatsonstage.com Award-winning The Ladykillers, said: "After working on A Mad World My Masters for two weeks in the RSC Studio, we came to one simple conclusion: this is one of the most hilariously wicked plays ever written. If new, it might be hailed as the bastard offspring of Richard Sheridan and Joe Orton, but one whose mid-wife was a naughty nurse from a 1970s sex comedy."
The cast "will work with Neilson in the rehearsal room to create a new play", running in the Jerwood Theatre Upstairs from 10 April (previews from 5 April) to 4 May.
Neilson’s previous work at the Royal Court includes Get Santa!, Relocated, The Wonderful World of Dissocia, Heredity, The Lying Kind and The Censor.